When thinking of garnet gemstones, most people think of red garnet. Garnet most commonly occurs in red, and the origin of the name “garnet” lies in this deep red hue. The name “garnet” comes from the Medieval Latin word, “granatum”, which is an adjective meaning “dark-red”. It is thought that this adjective could have been extracted from the word “pomegranate”, due to the color of the seed coats or shape of the seeds. However, the word could also have come from another Medieval Latin word; “granum”, referring to red dye. The use of red garnet dates back thousands of years, when it was used by Egyptian pharaohs for both decorative and ceremonial purposes. The ancient Romans also wore garnet rings and traded garnet gemstones.
Garnet is a gem group that occurs in over twenty varieties. Of these varieties, six main types are used as gems. These are pyrope, almandite, spessartite, grossularite, andradite and uvarovite. Large deposits of red garnet were discovered in Bohemia (Central Europe) around the 16th century, which became the focus of the jewelry industry in the area. Bohemian garnet from the Czech Republic continues to be mined today. Although red is the most commonly occurring color, garnet occurs in almost every color.